Let's say you want a bash session in a brand new Centos 8 container. You can have that by running a detached container running in the background:
docker run -d -t --name centos centos:8
And then, by
exec-ing bash in it:
docker exec -it centos bash
This works with most linux distro images like ubuntu, debian, fedora, alpine, etc.
If the container doesn't have a long running task set as the entrypoint, you can always override it using